From interactive exhibitions to Instagram, the 10th Shanghai Biennale employs various means to reach out to the public.
Xiang Liping, Chief Coordinator of the Shanghai Biennale 2014, tells Art Radar what can be expected from the young biennale bursting with vitality and potential, arriving in Shanghai later this year.
Xiang Liping is the Chief Coordinator of the 10th Shanghai Biennale, to be held in November 2014. Xiang has worked on every manifestation of the Shanghai Biennale since 2006 and is also Head of the Exhibition Department at Shanghai’s Power Station of Art and Chief Curator at ‘Between’ Art Lab, Shanghai.
Xiang has curated many exhibitions, including “The End of the Brush and Ink Era: Chinese Landscape” for True Color Museum, Suzhou, which was designated as one of the Top 10 Exhibitions in 2011 by National Fine Arts magazine, and “Infantization – Group Exhibition of Chinese Young Artists”, which toured Asia and Europe from 2007 until 2010.
In this interview, Xiang discusses the ambitions of this year’s Biennale, entitled “Social Factory”, and talks about the significance of the event in China’s most international city.
Could you describe what visitors can expect from Shanghai’s upcoming biennale?
Youth and energy: this is a direct consequence of the young curatorial team headed by Anselm Franke. There is a focus on sentiment and creativity, which are inspired by the theme “Social Factory”. This theme is connected to culture, creative and effective work, and there will be one department of the exhibition engaging with reflections on childhood, emotions and their representation.
A realist focus and a spirit of reflection: the Biennial will aim to contrast subjective experience with the logic of modernisation, its rationalisations and standardisations, as well as the technological mediation of subjectivity.
Shanghai is part of the mainland, but it is also global. Under the title, “If the World Changed”, last year’s Singapore Biennale (2013) proposed an Asian – or at least a Southeast Asian – critical territory. Will the Biennale in Shanghai extend Singapore’s proposition to centre contemporary art activity within the region rather than claiming a universal internationalism?
From the first Biennale, with its theme of “Open Space”, through to its successors “Inheritance and Exploration”, “Spirit of Shanghai”, “Urban Creation”, “Techniques of the Visible”, “Hyper Design”, “Translocalmotion” and “Rehearsal” to “Reactivation” in 2012, the biennale has always focused on issues keenly relevant to Shanghai and Chinese social development. The Biennale has strong local roots. The aim is not simple internationalisation for the sake of it, but as a means to satisfy local needs; thus the exhibition seeks to resolve local issues and offer a more detailed, wider approach to them.
Biennales are often seen as an opportunity to challenge and develop the exhibition format. Will the Shanghai Biennale 2014 be addressing the potential of the exhibition? And in what ways?
Given the previous work of our chief curator Anselm Franke, we can be sure of the academic and visual effect of this year’s Biennale. The exhibition will be innovative in its organisation, promotion and display. The Biennale will engage with diverse forms of cultural production expanding the reach of contemporary art, from popular images via music to documentary film.
There is a wealth of discrete small-scale art enterprises in Shanghai alongside large-scale institutions. Will the Biennale aim to connect the exciting art activity in the city?
The Shanghai Biennale is an important event in the Asian art world. At the inauguration of each exhibition, many other art institutions and museums put on a wealth of artistic events. The Biennale attracts academics from abroad, curators, artists, the media and visitors, and these are a highly prized resource for those institutions. This year, the Biennale has invited these organisations to submit proposals to exhibit in line with the theme and will select those of the highest quality and of greatest academic merit, incorporating them into the satellite exhibitions that are part of this year’s event.
Looking back on Chinese art history, diaspora is important in the formation of contemporary art as well as extraordinary indigenous art, while international contemporary art will sometimes respond to the place it’s at rather than where it has come from. It was not until the third Shanghai Biennale in 2002 that international artists became involved in the event. How has the international perspective of the Biennale developed?
In early modern history, Shanghai was China’s largest city and also the largest metropolis in the Far East. Shanghai has always been a tolerant, accepting city and something of a cultural melting pot. From its inception, the Shanghai Biennale has focused on Shanghai and drawn from its unique history and the memories of its people. The exhibition has reflected on contemporary urban cultural issues from a global angle. The 1996 and 1998 Biennales, while yet to develop a fully global outlook, were nonetheless successful in drawing artists of Chinese descent living and working all over the world, which developed its worldview.
Beginning in the new millennium, the 2000 Shanghai Biennale began to develop into an international event with a curatorial team drawn from both China and abroad, and with 67 artists from eighteen countries and regions. Foreign representation continued to increase steadily after that, climbing to approximately half.
At the same time, the Biennale was reaching out for international partners. In 2006, the Biennale worked with the Gwangju Biennale and the Singapore Biennale in close succession, creating a ‘perfect Biennale tour of Asia’. The seventh Shanghai Biennale, together with the Singapore, Gwangju, Sydney and Yokohama events brought into being the 2008 Art Compass. The 2012 City Pavilion event that drew inspiration from the 2010 Shanghai Expo involved pavilions representing thirty cities, Chinese and international. This year’s Biennale is a more rational exploration of Shanghai’s international vision and concern for local issues.
What kinds of academic events will take place during the Biennale?
Mainly lectures and forums. In addition to the guidebook and the catalogue, we will be experimenting with the publishing format. For instance, in 2008, Annette Balkema and I produced and edited The Shanghai Papers, published by Hatje Cantz Verlag, with a view to giving artists a space to explain the theory, development and meaning behind their work in a medium often monopolised by curators and theorists.
Biennales are often defined by the time when they happen. What is it about art, in the present, in Shanghai, that excites you?
Human imagination will always be one step ahead of scientific development. The Tang Dynasty poet Li Bai wrote that “the heart yearns to fulfill its grand designs, to fly up into the sky and seize the moon,” and in the twentieth century mankind did set foot on the moon. Andy Warhol predicted that everyone would have the opportunity to be famous for fifteen minutes; now, with the internet and We Media, his prophecy has come true. Which dream will be fulfilled next? Imagination fuels ambition: artists think outside the box and their art is the product of their imagination.
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- Three trends in Chinese contemporary art – Karen Smith book review – May 2013 – curator Smith identifies three sleeper trends in Chinese art today
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- 3 new Shanghai spaces point to flourishing art scene – February 2011 – from fairs to warehouse spaces, the city’s scene is livening up
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